Students lack the knowledge of different formatting styles and fail to produce a perfectly formatted assignment. It is imperative to have knowledge of different formatting styles to be able to write quality assignments and research papers. It will help you in making a better decision about which style to choose for your assignment.

Turabian writing format is pretty much similar to the Chicago format. Turabian style is commonly used in literature and history. It follows a similar pattern and offers bibliography information in footnotes and endnotes. The main difference between the styles is how the notes are assigned numbers.



The notes are numbered in the text inside parenthesis in Chicago style. Turabian style makes use of superscript in the texts and footnotes. Another difference is that Chicago is widely used for work that will be published while this is not the case with turabian format.


Citation Systems

Turabian Style has two citation systems:

  • Notes and Bibliography system
  • Author-Date citation system

Notes and Bibliography System

Footnotes and endnotes are numbered in your texts in notes and bibliography system. A complete list of references with all the relevant details should be provided at the end of the paper. This list should be arranged in an alphabetical order according to the sources mentioned in the notes.


Author-Date System

If you are following author-date style, your text must contain brief reference which includes name of the author of the source and year of publication inside parenthesis. It is known as in-text citation, which means to give references between the texts. All the details of the parenthetical references should be present in the reference list.


Basic Guidelines

  • Treat writers, editors and multiple authors as you will treat the single author of the book. For chapter in book, mention the title of the chapter and the name of the author of the book chapter.
  • References of the books must contain the last names of the author, publisher, year of publication, page numbers, volume (if any) etc.
  • Online resources such as websites must highlight the URL, year, date and author of the source in references.
  • Published journal articles must list the title, author, publisher, publication year and edition in reference while a URL must be provided for journal artless downloaded from the internet or academic databases.

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